Adolescents with more frequent back pain were also more likely to report anxiety and depression, and more likely to smoke and drink alcohol.
A year ago, Cheyne Kobzoff's life sucked. Hard. Despite a loving wife, two kids, and a great job as a chef at a local restaurant, the lifelong drinker spent every miserable morning trying to remove the creeping thoughts of self-hatred from his perpetually pounding head. But beyond the emotional damage, Kobzoff's rampant boozing had also caused his belly to balloon into a Santa-like situation. (The beard didn't do him any favors either.)
More precisely, the model assumes people drink to increase positive feelings or decrease negative ones. They’re also motivated by internal rewards such as enhancement of a desired personal emotional state, or by external rewards such as social approval.
This results in all drinking motives falling into one of four categories: enhancement (because it’s exciting), coping (to forget about my worries), social (to celebrate), and conformity (to fit in). Drinkers can be high or low in any number of drinking motives – people are not necessarily one type of drinker or the other.
In Tarrant County, Tex., defendants are sometimes strapped with a stun belt around their legs. The devices are used to deliver a shock in the event the person gets violent or attempts to escape.
But in the case of Terry Lee Morris, the device was used as punishment for refusing to answer a judge’s questions properly during his 2016 trial.
I rarely mix weed and alcohol—otherwise, I become more silent than a hermit crab floating in space.
But pursuing the high that results from combining the two drugs—known as a "crossfade"—isn't uncommon. Researchers, however, are still delving into the science behind this blissed-out state of mind—and why so many people seek it out.
An English physician in 1870 reported on morphine's tendency to "encourage the very pain it pretends to relieve." Researchers found that active heroin users were more sensitive to pain than expected. Other investigators took note, and by decade's end, a half-dozen studies had demonstrated similar results among heroin users as well as among recovering users on methadone.
For many people who live with chronic pain, opioids can seem like the difference between a full life or one lived in agony. Over the past few decades, they have become go-to drugs for acute pain, but Dr. Erin Krebs, with the Minneapolis Veteran's Administration Health Care System and the University of Minnesota, says the science about the effectiveness of opioids for chronic, or long-term, pain has been lacking.
As the deadly crisis refuses to wane, cities search for unconventional responses to overdoses.
“It’s an important study, and it shows that the fentanyl test can be really used as a point-of-care test within harm-reduction programs,” says Jon Zibbell, a public health scientist at nonprofit research organization RTI International.
"Although there was an overall dampening effect of alcohol on the prefrontal cortex, even at a low dose of alcohol we observed a significant positive relationship between dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and alcohol-related aggression," lead author Thomas Denson, from the University of New South Wales in Australia, said in a statement. "These regions may support different behaviors, such as peace versus aggression, depending on whether a person is sober or intoxicated.